Wheatley Triplex Operations
For more than 90 years Wheatley’s advanced technology has solved industry’s flow control problems.
Find operating instructions below for Wheatley pumps.
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS FOR START-UP OF DUPLEX PISTON PUMP
BEFORE YOU START:
- 1. Level pump to insure proper lubrication during operation.
- 2. Verify that pump crankcase has been filled with the proper amount of lubricant.
- 3. Verify that packing has been properly installed in the pump and is properly tightened.
- 4. Tighten all stud nuts and cap screws to the recommended torque values.
- 5. Squirt a light oil or other lubricant on the piston rods and rotate pump by hand to verify free rotation.
- 6. When force-feed lubrication is used, verify that the lubricator is filled and is operating properly.
- 7. Flush all suction lines leading to the pump. This will help protect valves and seats from damage.
- 8. For piston and packing protection, always prime pump. This is a positive displacement pump and is not intended to operate dry. This pump is designed to operate in a cavitation-free system.
- 9. Verify that all valves in discharge piping are open.
WARNING: !! AN OPERATIONAL SAFETY RELIEF VALVE MUST BE INSTALLED IN THE DISCHARGE LINE BETWEEN PUMP AND ANY OTHER PIPE FITTINGS. THIS RELIEF VALVE MUST BE SET AT THE RECOMMENDED RELIEF PRESSURE DESIGNATED ON THE PUMP APPLICATION TAG. CATASTROPHIC DESTRUCTION OF PUMP, PIPING, OR PERSONAL INJURY MAY RESULT IF DISCHARGE LINES ARE CLOSED WHEN THE PUMP IS STARTED, OR AFTER THE PUMP IS RUNNING.
!! CATASTROPHIC DESTRUCTION OF PUMP, PIPING. OR PERSONAL INJURY MAY RESULT IF DISCHARGE LINES ARE CLOSED WHEN THE PUMP IS STARTED, OR AFTER THE PUMP IS RUNNING.
Gears, connecting rod bearings and crossheads in all geared piston type pumps are lubricated by splash from lubricant in the crankcase. Crankshaft bearings and pinion shaft bearings in series 1800, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1900, and 2600 pumps are also lubricated from this same oil in the crankcase by splash. Shaft bearings in Series 1550-C, 1654-C, 2000 and 2200 pumps and in pumps with Serial Number 24523 and below are sealed off from the crankcase lubricant by oil seals and run in a separate bath of oil retained in the respective bearing housing.
WARNING -The crankcase is drained after testing pump at the factory. Remove crankcase cover or crosshead guide hand hole cover and fill with sufficient lubricant before starting the pump for the first time.
CRANKCASE OIL –
Quantity and type of lubricant required to fill crankcase to proper level is shown below. For chain and sprocket driven pumps use an SAE 30 high grade mineral oil in Crankcase.
For herringbone gear driven pumps operating in average climates, use SAE 90EP, AGMA 5EP, or AGMA 6EP gear lubricants. Be sure, however, to use an EP lubricant that will not have a corrosive action on Bronze and that it contains rust, oxidation and foam inhibitors. multi-purpose multi-viscosity gear lubricants are UNSATISFACTORY for use in Gaso pumps.
For worm driven pumps, use an SAE 140 EP Gear Lubricant. Running temperature of crankcase oil should not exceed 180 degrees Fahrenheit. If higher temperatures occur and mechanical fits are found to be correct the use of a separate oil cooler is recommended. In addition, SAE EP 140 Gear Lubricant should be placed in separate bath bearings on pump where they are standard.
For low ambient temperatures, select an oil with a pour point lower than the lowest anticipated ambient temperature. Consult Gaso factory for recommendations when unusual operating conditions exist.
As soon as above lubricant has been added, replace crankcase cover and install breather(s) on top to provide for ventilation.
DAILY INSPECTION OF OIL IN CRANKCASE –
Check oil level and appearance daily. Change oil and clean breather every six months or 2000 hours running time, more often under severe operating conditions. The crankcase should be thoroughly cleaned at each oil change. Contamination of the oil by saltwater will be indicated in only a few hours by the oil turning white, milky, or foamy. Contamination of the oil by moisture condensation will be indicated by the oil slowly turning dark or a rusty brown. Whenever any type of contamination or dilution is detected, drain the crankcase, remove the crankcase cover and crosshead guide handhole cover, thoroughly flush out the oil and refill with clean oil as necessary to bring to full mark on the dipstick. Do not overfill. At the same time, check and clean breather. oil lost by leakage should be replaced before the level becomes too low. If loss is excessive, check the packing in the crankcase stuffing boxes, the oil retainer on the pinion shaft, and clean the crankcase breather.
LUBRICATION OF SHAFT BEARINGS IN SERIES 1550-C, 16540C, 2000 and 2200 – (AND FOR PUMPS #24523 AND BELOW) These pumps are equipped with inner oil seals on pinion shaft and crankshaft, so they run in a separate bath of SAE EP 90 Gear Lubricant or SAE 50 high grade motor oil or mineral oil. The correct amount of oil is put into the bearing housings when pump is shipped from factory, but a check should be made to see that none has leaked out or been removed. Proper oil level is even with pipe plug in lower part of bearing housing flange or cover plate.
Inspection should be made regularly to determine if any loss has occurred by leakage past the oil seals. If necessary add oil through plugged hole in top of bearing housing flange. Do not fill above ”oil level” as too much oil will churn and create excessive heat. Remove cover plates, flush with kerosene, inspect bearings, and refill with clean oil at least once every six months.
Normal running temperature is 140° to 160°F
Pumps with herringbone gears #24523 and up do not have inner oil seals installed for the pinion and crankshaft bearings as standard equipment however, you pump may have these seals installed as special equipment. if your pump has inner oil seals installed, the amount of oil required for the crankcase is as follows:
BEARING HOUSING LUBRICANT
CONNECTING ROD BEARINGS, CRANK END
Inspect connecting rod bearings and adjust as necessary every six months or when crankcase lubricant is changed. The bearings in the crank end are babbitt lined steel shells, adjustable for wear by removing shims and easily replaced when completely worn. These bearings should be watched closely and adjusted to compensate for wear. You will note that shims do not completely fill the outer gap between rod and cap casting although the connecting rod bolts are tight. This is because the faces of the shell bearings project slightly beyond the faces of the rod and cap castings and the shims are gripped only between the faces of the bearing halves. Do not try to close this outer gap by tightening the connecting rod bolt as it will put an excessive strain on them.
To check for wear, place a wrench on the top connecting rod bolt and shake the rod parallel to the crankshaft. (The pressure must be relieved from the liquid end of the pump so that the pump’s mechanism is free to move.) If the rod bearing moves without resistance, the bearing may be too loose and need adjusting. If the bearing does need adjusting, remove shims until you cannot shake the rod, then add .005” shims one at a time until there is a little side movement. Be sure to torque rod bolt nuts to proper value for each adjustment. (NOTE: If you are making this adjustment after having had the crossheads out, be sure that the oil holes in the rod are pointing up. The ”up” side is indicated by matching numbers stamped on the cap and rod at the split between them. These numbers should be the same on each rod and should be on the top side of the crankshaft.) Turn the shaft by hand and if there is any hard drag or tight spots in the bearing, add another .005” shim. After this bearing is properly adjusted, loosen bolts a few turns and repeat the above operation on the other bearings. After all bearings have been adjusted, torque all connecting rod bolt nuts back to proper amount. Again turn the pump by hand to check for excessive drag and tight spots. If none, the pump should then be ready for operation.
If the pump cannot be rotated by hand due to the drive being enclosed, the bearings may be completely adjusted by shaking the bearing on the shaft as stated above. Care must be taken not to over-tighten the bearings since they cannot be checked by rotating the pump by hand. When bearings are adjusted by this method, they must be watched carefully for overheating when the pump is put into operation.
Alternatively, plastic gauge strips, found in most parts stores may be used to adjust these bearings. It is usually better to have a bearing a little too loose than too tight. A slightly loose bearing will cause very little trouble because of the slow operating speeds of the pump, but a tight bearing will overheat and the babbitt may melt or pull. with experience, an operator can tell by feel when the bearings are properly adjusted. Normal precautions must be taken to insure cleanliness of parts upon their assembly. All wrenches used in adjusting these bearings are standard wrenches.
CLEARANCE ON CONNECTING ROD BEARINGS, CRANK END
|PUMP FIGURE NUMBER
|DIA. OF CRANK PIN
RECOMMENDED TORQUE WRENCH SETTINGS FOR CONNECTING ROD BOLT NUTS
|2500 In. -Lbs.
|4500 In. -Lbs.
|6000 In. -Lbs.
CONNECTING ROD BEARINGS, CROSSHEAD END
Bearings in the crosshead end are bronze bushings. To replace these bushings, remove connecting rod and crosshead assembly from pump. Press out the crosshead pin, and then remove and replace bushing. After the new bushing has been pressed into the connecting rod, it should be reamed for a loose fit on the crosshead pin as follows: .002” for pumps Series 1500, 1800, and 1700, .0025” for pumps Series 1600, and .004” for pumps Series 2600.
Before replacing crosshead pin, always inspect pin and crosshead for burrs. Then press-in pin, using an anti-seize compound as lubricant.
Crankshaft bearings are single tapered roller bearings and are splash-lubricated from oil in the crankcase. These should be flushed clean and carefully inspected and adjusted as necessary at least once every six months, or whenever crankcase lubricant is changed.
Crankcase bearings for Series 1800, 1500, 1600, and 1700 pumps should have an end play in the crankshaft of: .001” to .003” for 1800 pumps .002” to .004” for 1500 pumps & 1600 pumps .003” to .005” for 1700 pumps
This end play is measured when pump is cold to allow for expansion due to heat under operating conditions. Bearings may be adjusted from one side only. To adjust bearings for end play, disconnect connecting rods, remove several shims (more than necessary) from under the bearing housing, tighten up on crankshaft bearing housings until bearings bind slightly when shaft is rotated by hand. Then measure the shim gap with a feeler gauge and add its equivalent plus from .001” to .003” of shim (for normal clearance) and tighten up on crankshaft bearing housing cap screws.
Crankshaft bearings for series 2600 Pumps have a .012” to .013” pre-load. To get this pre-load, try different thicknesses of shims until a slight drag is felt while rolling the shaft and then remove .012” to .013” of shims. When necessary to install new bearing cones on crankshaft, heat them in oil at 280 degrees Fahrenheit for easy installation. Be sure they are firmly against the shoulder on the crankshaft.
Please note: Improper application of heat to these bearings during their installation in Gaso pumps will automatically revoke the warranty on the bearings. It is suggested that the procedures outlines above be closely followed when changing bearings. PINION SHAFT BEARINGS – The pinion shaft bearings are self-contained ball or roller bearings and have no adjustment for wear. Their load ratings are far above the load applied and will therefore have very little wear if properly lubricated.
There are two principal types of Gaso Piston Pumps which use gears; those with herringbone gear reduction and those with worm gear reduction.
The herringbone gears are continuous tooth Sykes design. Pinion gear is alloy steel and keyed to the pinion shaft. Main gear is a high grade semi-steel or ductile iron casting, with internal flange for bolting to crankshaft with cap screws. Gear teeth may show signs of slight pitting after being run awhile, but with proper lubrication this will cease and teeth will smooth up.
Meshing of these herringbone gears provides the principal method of lubricating the pinion and crankshaft bearings. Therefore, the pinion must be turning in the direction specified on the power frame casting and the gears must be meshing so the center part of the gear teeth come together first.
Although pumps may run backwards without adversely affecting operation, always run them faster than 75 strokes per minute or install inner oil seals for pinion shaft and crankshaft bearings.
In worm-driven pumps, the main or ring gear, is of special nickel alloy bronze with internal flange for bolting to center disc of crankshaft. The driving worm and shaft is one piece, of chrome nickel steel, hardened and ground. This worm and shaft is removable through the end of worm case toward the liquid end of pump but it will first be necessary to remove the flexible coupling, stuffing box, and thrust bearing jam nut from other end of shaft. The thrust bearings will slide off when shaft is withdrawn.
To remove crankshaft and main gear, take out cap screws holding oil reservoir half-ring to inner end of main bearing housing, remove bearing housing clamps and pull main bearing housings outward until free of bearings. Then lift crankshaft and gear assembly out. Support crankshaft and gear assembly with a block or hoist before pulling the bearing housings outward.
Series 1550-C and 1654-C pumps use quadruple row internal sprockets with specially made heavy duty quadruple row chain. The driving pinion shaft and sprocket is one piece with Nitride Hardened sprocket teeth.
The main sprocket is of alloy steel, with internal flange for bolting to center disc of crankshaft. To remove crankshaft and main sprocket, pull master link from chain, remove cap screws holding oil seal rings to inner end of main bearing housing, remove bearing housing clamps and pull main bearing housings outward until free of bearings. Then lift crankshaft and gear assembly out. Support crankshaft and sprocket assembly with a block or hoist before pulling the bearing housing outward.
PISTON ROD STUFFING BOXES AND PACKING
The piston rod stuffing boxes in power end of pump are packed at the factory. The purpose of this packing is to wipe the piston rod clean and thus prevent contamination of lubricant in the crankcase and also to prevent loss of oil from the crankcase. Adjust this packing by evenly tightening the packing gland cap screws until leakage is minimized.
Over a period of time, beginning may, 1978, all liquid end bodies for Duplex Piston Pumps were gradually redesigned to accept an O-ring mounted in a bevel at the opening of the valve covers, cylinder heads and stuffing boxes. This re-design allowed the flange of the valve cover, cylinder head, or stuffing box to fit metal-to-metal with the liquid body. Prior to this re-design most of these liquid ends were counter-bored to accept a flat gasket which caused a gap between the flanges of the valve covers, cylinder head, or stuffing boxes and the liquid end. BEFORE YOU REPAIR YOUR PUMP, MAKE A VISUAL CHECK TO SEE WHAT TYPE OF VALVE COVER, CYLINDER HEAD, AND STUFFING BOXES ARE ON THE PUMP.
The list of serial numbers below will serve as a general guide to the first pumps fitted with O-rings, but does not guarantee that your pump has them. You must check your pump before ordering parts for it. The first number is the pump serial number, the second number is the liquid end serial number:
- 1847-A # 41451 – 2053
- 1550 # 40162 – No liquid end number
- 1550-C # 40137 – No liquid end number
- 1654 # 40164 – No liquid end number
- 1654-C # 40007 – No liquid end number
- 1742 # 41785 – 2410
- 1755 # 41778 – 2406
- 1753 # 42376 – 2994
- 2651 # 42224 – 2851
- 2652 # 42029 – 2668
- 1757 and 1759 liquid bodies are beveled for O-rings.
PISTON ROD STUFFING BOXES AND PACKING
Liquid end stuffing boxes on a new pump must be packaged by the user before the pump is put into service. The necessary packing will be found in small sacks packed in a box with other pump accessories. Standard packing consists of lip type packing rings. These function best when not squeezed up too tight. Special packing sometimes furnished consists of square graphited duck and rubber packing rings. These require more pressure to seal off fluid satisfactorily, but care should be exercised to avoid over-tightening. Good practice is to let packing leak slightly.
Standard pistons for crude oil service consist of cast iron or steel bodies with special patented cast iron porous chrome faced piston rings. Cast iron or steel piston bodies with nylon glass filled piston rings are furnished pumping crude oil products. Cup type pistons are furnished for pumping saltwater and rubber inserted pistons are used for slush and cementing service.
To replace pistons, remove crosshead jam nuts and power end and liquid end stuffing box glands and packing. Remove cylinder heads and pull rod, piston and liner through front of liquid end. Install new pistons, rings or cups is required. Insert pistons on to rod and into liners, oriented with front of piston toward flange end of liner. Install new liner gasket, and slip liner, piston and rod assembly into pump. Be sure to slip packing glands over rod before pushing rod thru power end stuffing box. Run crosshead jam nut onto rod as far as possible, positioned so flat face of nut will bear upon face of crosshead. Run rod into crosshead until jam nut touches crosshead, then tighten jam nut against crosshead. Be sure all mating surfaces are dry and clean before tightening nuts against pistons or crossheads. Note: torque all nuts holding pistons to rod to 7.200 in.-lbs.
Holding liner in place, roll pump one complete revolution to verify that piston is centered in the liner (end of cast iron piston may stroke out of liner), and adjust as necessary by repositioning the crosshead jam nut on the rod. Once centered, install the packing, glands, and cylinder heads. (See instructions for tightening liner set screws below.) Slush type pistons generally require more frequent attention than other types of pistons.
Standard liners for crude oil service are cast iron. Liners for saltwater service are corrosion resistant material. Hardened steel liners are recommended for slush pump service. Always use new gaskets when changing liners.
LINER SET SCREWS
There are four Liner Set Screws with jam nuts in each cylinder head. These are to hold the liner against the liner gasket. When installing cylinder head, back the liner set screws out a little and then tighten all nuts on cylinder head studs first. Be sure to work around the cylinder head from nut to nut until all are tightened evenly. Then tighten set screws against the liner, torque to 2880 in.-lbs. with the exception of Fig. 1849 pumps which are torqued to 2400 in.-lbs. again working evenly. Lastly, tighten the jam nuts on these set screws. Be sure that packing or lead gasket is in the cupped space on underside of jam nut.
VALVES AND VALVE SEATS
Standard equipment for crude oil service consists of hardened and ground steel wing guided valves and seats. Bronze wing guided valves and seats are usually furnished for fresh or saltwater service. Tops of valve stems are slotted so that valve can be rotated in the pump to regrind valve and seat faces with grinding compound. When worn too badly, they can be removed and faced off in a lathe.
Insert type valve assemblies consist of a bronze, steel, or cast iron winged body, a Bakelite disc insert, and a metal cap plate all held together with a cap screw. Inserts made from plastic can also be furnished. Inserts will require occasional renewal. Top of seat surface which contacts insert should be inspected at reasonable intervals and reground if marred.
Slush pump valves require frequent replacement of rubber inserts due to the very abrasive material being pumped. Valves and seats should be inspected before starting and when finishing any drilling job. When replacing valve seats, clean valve seat and mating taper in liquid end with a cleaner that does not leave an oil film or residue. Wipe with a clean, dry rag.
CAUTION: SEAT AND TAPER IN LIQUID END MUST BE ABSOLUTELY CLEAN AN DRY BEFORE DRIVING SEAT INTO PUMP TAPER.
CYLINDER HEADS AND VALVE COVERS AND STUFFING BOXES
Valve covers and Cylinder Heads are held to the liquid body with studs and nuts. These nuts should be torqued to the following values according to size.
- 3/4” – 2,880 in-lbs
- 7/8” – 4,800 in.-lbs.
- 1” – 7,200 in.-lbs
Note: If the pump is EVER overloaded (loaded above maximum recommended published pressures) or if a stud EVER fails for any reason whatsoever, REPLACE ALL STUDS IN THE LIQUID BODY BEFORE USING THE PUMP AGAIN.
Pumps are equipped with O-Ring gaskets for valve covers, cylinder heads, and stuffing boxes, and with flat fiber gaskets for suction and discharge flanges. Separate lantern rings and ”tattle-tale” packing is furnished as gaskets for liners in recently manufactured slush fitted pumps, while pumps fitted for other applications are equipped with spacers and flat fiber liner gaskets. Always be sure that all gasket surfaces are smooth and dry and free of any particles which would scratch or otherwise interfere with efficient operation of the gasket.
RECOMMENDED WORKING PRESSURES AND CAPACITIES
Piston displacement and recommended working pressure for continuous duty and with various size liners are shown in the current Gaso catalog. When pumping relatively incompressible liquids, volumetric efficiency of pump when valves and liners and pistons are in good shape should be from 95% to 96%. If actual output of pump does not equal 95% of displacement figures shown at the respective speeds, cause o£ trouble may be foreign matter lodged under valve, bad valve facing, worn liners, worn piston rings, or blown liner gasket. Too small a suction line may also be cause of shortage. SUCTION LINES — (REFER TO DIAGRAM)
Flush suction lines thoroughly before starting pump. Always provide ample capacity suction lines to the pump. This is the first requisite when installing a GASO pump. The pump cannot function properly if an inadequate quantity of fluid is furnished it. For suction lines leading directly to the pump, select a size line so that the velocity of the fluid will not exceed 12 feet per second, or one that is two sizes larger than the pump suction connection, whichever gives the slower line velocity. The last to to 15 feet of this line is preferably flexible hose and should always be connected to the pump inlet with an eccentric reducer (with straight portion on top). Always size ”headers” feeding more than one pump so that the maximum velocity in the header with all pumps running will not exceed 1 foot per second.
NEVER USE PLUG-TYPE VALVES IN A SUCTION LINE. USE FULL OPENING VALVES.
Keep the number of turns to a minimum. When turns are required, use long radius ells. In pumping gaso lines or light volatile liquids such as butane and propane, design your system so that the positive suction head at the pump is at least 35 pounds per square inch (psi) above the vapor pressure of the fluid. When pumping water or average crude oils, 10 to 15 psi gauge pressure at the pump will usually be sufficient if pump speed does not exceed 54 RPM. If pump is running at higher speeds, provide for a minimum additional pressure of 15 psi at the pump inlet. Always connect to two sides of pumps with multiple suction inlets. This will help insure proper filling of the pump. If unable to connect to two sides, use a properly sized suction stabilizer, mounted and charged according to instructions with stabilizer.